Go is a terrible language

Janos Pasztor

As a developer it’s hard to ignore Go nowadays. Powering software like Docker and Kubernetes it has risen to rapid prominence. However, if one looks at the popularity graphs of the language Go is very far from the most popular, or even the fastest growing programming language.

Do you want a different opinion? Read my post about why Go is awesome!

Why is it then that everybody seems to be talking about and hiring for Go? Seemingly everybody wants to use Go, from system-level engineering to building webshops? Is this just a hype curve and is Go even suitable for the tasks it is being used for?

I have recently written an SSH server that launches containers in Go. The project has certainly grown to quite a large size, and I have also sent a pull request to Golang itself to fix a bug I found after having gathered substantially more experience than a Hello world!.

In this article I’m going to take a look at the bad parts: the language design flaws, the parts where Go needs to mature more, down to the plain annoying stupid things.

However, it’s not all bad: Go has some awesome features that make it an invaluable tool for many applications. β€œGo” read my other article if you are interested in those. (Pun totally intended.)

Still here? Good. Let’s look at the nasty bits. Keep in mind that this post was written for Go 1.14. Things might have changed in the meantime.

Error handling

Go has no exceptions. While there are very valid criticisms against exceptions in my opinion the method Go has chosen to deal with errors is way worse.

You see, in Go you can declare a function like this:

func doSomething() error {
    return errors.New("this is an error")

When you call this function you have the option to handle this error:

func doSomethingElse() error {
    err := doSomething()
    if err != nil {
        return err
    //More things to do

Oh boy, there is so much to unpack here. First of all, nothing forces you to handle this potential error. Sure, IDEs like Goland will warn you about it, but the compiler doesn’t force you to handle this error. (This problem can also be partially mitigated by linters that check your source code for accidental omissions like this.)

Going further, the error is basically a string in 99.9% of cases. Yes, error is an interface that you can implement any way you want, but most Go code I have seen doesn’t utilize this to provide typed errors. The standard way of providing typed errors seems to be the following:

var MyError = errors.New("this is an error")

func doSomething() error {
    return MyError

func doSomethingElse() error {
    err := doSomething()
    if err != nil {
        if err == MyError {
            // Handle MyError specifically
        } else {
            // Handle other errors
    //More things to do

That’s a LOT of boilerplate code for a simple error handling. However, the larger problem is that functions don’t declare what kinds of errors they return. When I’m using a function of a third party library that does this I’m left with two options:

  1. I use the IDE to dive into the third party library to reverse engineer what kinds of errors it throws and then handle them. I have written production-grade code in roughly a dozen programming languages during my career, but I never had to do so much reverse engineering as with Go.
  2. Treat the error as a string of unknown content.

Almost every piece of Go code I have looked into uses option 2. No wonder, it’s the simpler option to code. This leads to one of the following two patterns:

if err != nil {
    return err
if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("an error happened (%v)", err)

The first option is basically equivalent to exceptions. Except that it leads to a ton of boilerplate code. The second option crashes the program with an unhelpful error message.

I get the idea of forcing developers to handle errors explicitly, but most of the Go code I have seen just uses one of these two mindless patterns.

Why can we not just simply have exceptions that catch typed errors? It would be so much simpler and lead to so much less boilerplate code. Alas, it’s probably too late for that now.


The nil value in Go is usable for any pointer type. Pointers hold an address of a piece of memory. In Go you can’t directly allocate memory, but other programming languages like C allow you to do that. The pointer address of 0 is a synonym for not pointing anywhere. Of course a memory address of 0 doesn’t necessarily mean an invalid memory location but modern compilers understand this and translate a null pointer to the corresponding no-value type of the CPU architecture you are compiling for.

Now, in Go nil values are actually a problem because there is no in-language way to indicate if a value can or cannot be null.

something := getSomething()

This code may lead to a crash if something is nil. Yes, a full-on crash. You can, of course, rewrite the code to include error handling, but it would be better if Go had learnt from the mistakes of other languages.

Scoping and code structure

By far one of the biggest bug bears I have with Go is the scoping. Go does not have qualifiers like public, private or protected. The compiler takes all .go files in the same package and merges them. If a variable name, interface, etc. is written with a lower case starting letter it is considered β€œprivate” and is only visible within the package. If it is written with a capital first letter it is β€œpublic”.

In other words lower case things are only accessible in the same package, upper case things are globally visible. Unfortunately there is no way to restrict visibility within the same package.

Note: When using Go modules (which is the preferred way) one package means one directory. Other build systems like Bazel allow for multiple packages per directory. This somewhat mitigates the lack of scoping.

Imagine you have a data structure, and a set of functions that implement a very specific business logic. Someone who is not familiar with the business logic might not think much of it and implement a function in the same package that changes the data in a fashion that is not desirable from a business perspective.

In other programming languages this is usually prevented by more granular scoping. You could, for example, use classes and create private member variables to encapsulate the data.

You have two options to deal with this problem:

  1. Trust that no one is going to violate the integrity of any data stored.
  2. Organize your code in such a way that each package only contains a minimal amount of code.

You can, of course, go with option 1., but I’ve never seen that go right. There’s always that one colleague who is in a hurry and implements something without thinking. Scoping is there to make the bad things hard and the good things easy. This is called defensive programming.

In Go defensive programming means you have to create a lot of directories. And I mean a lot. And you thought Java had too many files and directories…

The lack of immutability

Another useful tool in defensive programming is immutability. Immutable data structures prevent modifications to data structures after they have been created, they can only be copied. While this is not as efficient in terms of performance it is also desirable to prevent accidental side effects.

Imagine an HTTP request struct: the first layer of your application creates it and then passes it down through several modules. If the request struct was passed down as a pointer any layer modifying the request will modify it globally, leading to a potential side effect in the top layer.

Even if you don’t use pointers and pass the struct by value slices are still mutable data structures.

Go seems to heavily prioritize performance over avoiding potential bugs. There is no in-language way to create safe data transfers at module boundaries apart from third party deep copy libraries. (There are a lot of buggy ones too!)

In other words, barring the use of deep copy libraries, a developer must know what happens to the data throughout the application to be sure there are no unintended side effects.

The lack of generics

Generics are a convenient way of creating reusable code. Let’s say we want to build a tree. In Java this could look as follows:

tree = new TreeNode()
    new TreeNode("Hello world!")
auto data = tree.getChild(0).getData()

If we write the code like this the data variable will have the type Object with no specific information. We won’t have code completion for the fact that it is actually a string. We will need to know and cast it:

auto data = (String)tree.getChild(0).getData()

If the data included is not a string this will result in an error. To work around this issue we can use generics to give a type to the data included:

tree = new TreeNode<String>()
    new TreeNode<String>("Hello world!")
auto data = tree.getChild(0).getData()

In this case data will be a string without any further magic and we can be sure that there are only strings in the tree.

Now, this is a feature that’s sorely lacking from Go. We constantly have to keep casting to the data type we believe or hope will be returned.

OOP (the bad parts)

Since we talked about trees, let’s take a look at how we would implement a tree node in Go.

package tree

type TreeNode struct {
    children []treeNode
    data interface{}

func New(
    data interface{},
) *TreeNode {
    return &TreeNode{}

func (treeNode *TreeNode) AddChild(
    child *TreeNode,
) {
    treeNode.children = append(

func (treeNode *TreeNode) GetChild(
    childIndex int,
) *TreeNode {
    return treeNode.children[childIndex]

Yes, it’s lacking error handling, but you get the idea. We don’t have a class per se, but we do have this weird construct called a receiver which is this part: (treeNode * TreeNode). Receivers are basically what the keyword this or self would be in other OOP languages.

In Go you would use the TreeNode like this:

tree := New(data here)
tree.AddChild(New(data here))

You can even implement interfaces:

type TreeNodeInterface interface {
    AddChild(child TreeNode)
    GetChild(childIndex int) TreeNode

Quite simple and the interface above already implements this interface. No special keywords required, which is not exactly helpful when diving into new code. IDEs like Goland help you with code navigation, but it can be quite hard to follow which implementation is where. Furthermore, if you fail to implement even one function required for an interface the code navigation doesn’t work anymore.

It is also worth mentioning that the lack of inheritance, and the lack of generics together makes it very hard to write reusable code.

No enums

The issues before were just quirky and possibly arise out of the way the language was built. Now we get to the downright silly. When I was implementing my SSH server I ran across a piece of code that read like this:

newChannel.Reject(reason, message) error

The reason was of the type channel.RejectionReason. And what do you think that type was? Let’s use the powers of the IDE to figure it out. (You shouldn’t have to do this.)

// RejectionReason is an enumeration
// used when rejecting channel creation
// requests. See RFC 4254, section 5.1.
type RejectionReason uint32

Cool. So it’s a 32 bit unsigned integer. What values can it take? No clue. Is it going to check if I send it an invalid code? Nope. There are no enums in Go. The possible values are defined separately:

const (
	Prohibited RejectionReason = iota + 1

These values are in no relation to the above type definition. No IDE in the world can give you code completion for that and you have to dive into the libary you are using to figure this out.

Package management

For a long time package management in Go was absolutely horrible. Thankfully, since 1.11 Go modules are a thing, but dependency management is a very long way from where other languages are.

As a major issue they use git as a package management tool. Packages generally don’t contain any meta information about their author, license, version number, etc. There is no code freeze after a version has been published absolutely breaking the assumption that a version isn’t going to change later. There is no clean way to comply with the Apache license requirement to include the NOTICE file in your final builds in any reasonable fashion. Yes, I know, most don’t give a flying flamingo, but really, you should.

The hype

Finally, the stupidest of all: the hype. Go is an awesome language if you want to build system-level stuff where even micro optimization can bring a clear benefit. It was very clearly built with execution speed in mind over everything else. Even code maintainability.

Every larger Go project I came across is a horrible mess with more dependencies than your average Javascript framework. The code itself puts Italy to shame when it comes to making spaghetti. You have to focus on tiny implementation details rather than the grand concept.

Go is not well suited for applications with heavy business logic. Or webshops. Or 99% of the projects you come across as an average developer. You are not Google and you don’t have Google-like performance problems. (Or if you are what the hell are you doing reading my blog anyway?)


Go is certainly an awesome tool for system-level development, but it comes at a cost in terms of cognitive load. I definitely wouldn’t want to write something with a heavy business logic in it, but I am struggling to find a better tool for writing high performance system tools or utilities with. ∎